School of Health Sciences and Human Performance
Linda Petrosino, Dean
Christina S. Moylan, Associate Dean
John Sigg, Associate Dean
For full faculty listing, see “Faculty and Administration.”
Programs in Health Sciences and Human Performance utilize experiential learning to integrate theory and scholarship with professional practice to foster life-long learners who demonstrate integrity and are committed to improving the quality of life for individuals, groups, and populations.
We meet this mission by:
- fostering interdisciplinary collaboration within and between academic and professional settings.
- using experiential learning as a means to integrate theory and scholarship with professional practice.
- using scholarship, in all of its forms, to advance knowledge and practice.
Students who graduate from our degree programs have career opportunities including rehabilitating people in clinical settings; coaching athletes; designing fitness programs for individuals or within corporate settings; working within a sport organization, government health agency, or community setting; managing hospitals and nursing homes; teaching health and physical education; leading outdoor adventure pursuits; and working as a recreation manager in the hotel or leisure industry.
Hallmarks for Student Success
Wide Choice of Programs
HSHP currently enrolls more than 1,500 full-time students in more than 16 different undergraduate degree programs and 7 graduate programs (7 M.S. degrees/concentrations and a clinical doctorate in physical therapy). In addition, students can choose from a variety of minors, concentrations (e.g., nutrition) and emphases (e.g., medical sciences) within some of the undergraduate majors. The wide breadth of programs ensures that students can find a major in HSHP that will meet their life goals. Upon graduation, students interested in developing further depth in an area can advance to graduate studies in many departments.
The HSHP Preprofessional Program is available for freshmen and sophomores who are interested in careers related to health, health care, exercise, or leisure but are uncertain of the professional major they want to pursue. Students receive intensive guidance and academic advisement concerning program choices before declaring a major.
Faculty as Advisers, Mentors, and Research Partners
The strength of an HSHP degree emerges from a dedicated faculty who believe in and practice their areas of expertise and engage in scholarship and research with their students while fully supporting the integration of the liberal arts and sciences into their professional programs.
National Academic Reputation
HSHP students consistently perform above national averages in all programs that require licensure or certification exams. We strive to produce highly prepared entry-level professionals.
Alpha Eta National Honor Society
In March 2009, the Departments of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Occupational Therapy, Physical Therapy, and Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology from the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance at Ithaca College applied for and received a charter for a chapter of the Alpha Eta Society (AES). Founded in 1975 at the University of Florida, this national scholastic honor society for the allied health professions was formed to promote and recognize significant scholarship in, leadership in, and contributions to the field. Active membership in the Ithaca chapter of the society consists of candidates for a baccalaureate or a graduate degree in an allied health program, candidates for postdegree certificates in allied health programs, faculty in allied health programs, and alumni of such programs. (http://www.alphaeta.net/)
Students in HSHP have myriad opportunities to apply the knowledge and skills developed in the classroom. The importance of experiential learning is demonstrated by our affiliation with over 1,200 sites and organizations, located throughout the United States and abroad, where our students complete fieldwork and internships. In addition, the school houses a faculty/staff wellness clinic, an occupational/physical therapy clinic, the Sir Alexander Ewing Speech and Hearing Clinic, athletic training facilities, and the Center for Life Skills (a center emphasizing a team approach to health care). Each year more than 700 HSHP students complete field experiences as part of their academic program. Annual faculty-led study abroad gives students an opportunity for a global experience.
Employment in One’s Chosen Field
Over 90 percent of HSHP graduates find employment in their field or a related field or are accepted into graduate schools of their choice within one year of graduation. In the past two years the rate was over 95 percent.
Physical Activity, Leisure, and Safety
The Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies maintains the physical activity, leisure, and safety (PALS) program, which offers a broad spectrum of skill courses designed to provide students with instruction at beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels in physical activities that meet individual student interests and needs. Majors and nonmajors are encouraged to participate in PALS. More information about the PALS program can be found at the PALS website. (http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/pals/)
Ithaca Seminars (4 credits) are required for all incoming first-year students. See Integrative Core Curriculum for details.
HSHP students are encouraged to pursue international study. One option is the College’s London Center, which features a seminar on the national health system in Great Britain and offers social service internships in health administration. Other options for international study include HINT 31300 and RLS 27700.
Students should consult with their faculty advisers well in advance to ensure that study abroad is scheduled as compatibly as possible with their professional courses at Ithaca and that they have established an adequate foundation for it through their Ithaca work. The staff of the Office of International Programs and Extended Studies, Job Hall 2nd Floor, is also available to assist students in their planning.
Ithaca College in New York City (ICNYC) Program
The bustle, energy, and opportunity at the center of the world lies only four hours from Ithaca. As a major intersection of international culture and commerce, New York City is a metropolis of possibilities for Ithaca College students. The semester-long ICNYC program is open to students from all five schools. Classroom-based and online courses are available for students. Classroom and meeting space is provided by the The Cornell University Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Conference Center located in mid-town Manhattan. ICNYC is designed to let students live and gain real work experience in one of the most dynamic cities in the world.
Internships and Experiential Learning
Many of the programs in the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance have degree requirements in which students must complete one or more field-based experiences. In all instances students will work with a faculty member to select and arrange appropriate experiences. Students are responsible for the cost and arrangement of transportation and housing associated with their placement. The Office of Experiential Learning, Smiddy 320, serves to coordinate contractual arrangements with sites, as well as insurance billing. Specific departmental requirements can be found at Office of Experiential Learning.
In addition to the courses listed in this catalog, others may be offered on an experimental basis. Details of such courses are given in the Undergraduate Course Offerings for the semester in which they are offered. Students should consult the registrar’s website for specific information on the schedule of all courses each semester.
Unless otherwise designated, courses are open to all Ithaca College students on a space-available basis, provided that the prerequisites for the course have been met.
Many of the programs in the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance lead to professional licensure and/or certification. Because these credentialing processes are designed to protect the public from practitioners who are unqualified, unscrupulous, or unable to perform professional services adequately, credentialing agencies may bar individuals from subsequent credentials and/or practice. Activities that may exclude students from licensure and/or certification include, but are not limited to,
- conviction of, plea of guilty to, or plea of no contest (nolo contendere ) to a felony or misdemeanor related to professional practice or public health or safety; or
- any physical, mental, or dependency condition that will or may interfere with the ability to practice the designated specialty.
Students should check with the relevant licensing or certifying agencies for requirements in this area early in their academic careers.
In addition to the undergraduate degree programs offered by its academic departments, the school offers a variety of graduate opportunities.
- The five-year program in occupational science/occupational therapy awards a B.S. degree in occupational science at the end of the fourth year and an M.S. degree in occupational therapy at the end of the fifth year.
- The six-year program in clinical health studies/physical therapy awards a B.S. degree in clinical health studies at the end of the fourth year and a doctorate in physical therapy (D.P.T.) at the end of the sixth year.
- The graduate curriculum leading to an M.S. degree in exercise and sport sciences offers thesis and non-thesis options. One of the unique characteristics of the program is the opportunity to pursue an area of concentration in exercise physiology, sport psychology, or human performance.
- Speech-language pathology majors may apply to continue their studies beyond the B.S. degree through the department’s M.S. degree programs in speech-language pathology.
For more information regarding these programs as well as the College’s other graduate programs, consult the Ithaca College graduate catalog.
Physical Activity, Leisure, and Safety Program
Patrick Lewis, Program Coordinator
The physical activity, leisure, and safety (PALS) program provides diverse, skill-oriented physical activities as part of a general education program promoting the physiological development of students, improving their fitness and motor skills, and enabling them to maintain a suitable recreation program of their choice during and after college. The PALS program offers a variety of activities in the areas of aquatics, individual and dual sports, team sports, and physical fitness. CPR and first aid courses are offered through the health education program (HLTH).
A maximum of 6 credits in PALS courses, taken as open (free) electives, may be counted toward graduation. Each school or department determines the number that may be counted toward graduation. PALS courses are offered on a pass/fail basis only.
Activity Course Registration Information
Students must register online for activity courses. In order to do so, students must select the appropriate block: block 1 (first 7 weeks of the semester) or block 2 (last 7 weeks of the semester). Students risk being automatically dropped from the course if they do not attend the first class meeting. The only exception to this rule will be with prior notice of the absence. A student who is dropped for nonattendance may apply to be added at the next class meeting. (Note: The instructor is not obligated to drop a student; students who decide not to take the course must follow the regular drop procedures.) All persons who participate in activity courses must have a health clearance on file in the College’s health center.
Some of the courses require the student to pay an extra fee to cover various instructor, equipment, and materials costs. The costs associated with these courses are noted in the course descriptions when students register.
Intercollegiate Athletic Course Registration Information
Students participating on an intercollegiate athletic team can register online for intercollegiate athletic course credit. Students who do not make the team or who discontinue participation for any reason must drop or withdraw from the course online. Intercollegiate athletic courses are offered on a pass/fail basis only. Credit is granted either in the fall or the spring for any given sport. No late requests for credit will be honored.
Teacher Education Programs
For more information, see the Ithaca College graduate catalog.
HSHP Preprofessional Program — Freshmen and Sophomores Only
As an alternative to being directly admitted to one of the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance (HSHP) professional majors, a student may be admitted to the HSHP Preprofessional Program. The Preprofessional Program is offered for students who are interested in careers related to health, health care, exercise, or leisure but are uncertain of the professional major they want to pursue. Students enrolled in the program must participate in mandatory advising prior to course registration each semester and complete a one credit course in the Fall semester of the freshman year which provides an introduction to the health professions. The program is not degree bearing; it is a temporary classification only. After one semester in the program, students are free to apply for transfer to professional majors in HSHP or another school of the College. Transferring into any major is not guaranteed and depends upon capacity, student academic performance, and other department-specific transfer requirements. Students are expected to apply for transfer to a major before registration for their fourth semester or by the time they have earned 60 credits. They must be admitted to a major at the College before their junior year. To ensure meeting these deadlines, students should begin their efforts to decide on a major by Spring of freshman year and no later than Fall of sophomore year. For more information visit the HSHP Preprofessional Program website.
Minors and Concentrations
Coaching — For majors in all disciplines except physical education and health education and physical education. See Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education.
Communication Disorders — For majors in all disciplines except speech-language pathology. See Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.
Deaf Studies — For majors in all disciplines. See Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.
Exercise Science — For majors in all disciplines except exercise science, clinical exercise science, and athletic training. See Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences .
Health — For majors in all disciplines except Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education majors. See Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education .
Health Policy and Management — For majors in all disciplines except health care management. See Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education.
Nutrition Promotion — For majors in all disciplines except health education, health education and physical education, or health sciences - food and nutrition emphasis. Students in health education or health education and physical education may complete a concentration in nutrition promotion by following the requirements of this minor. See Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education .
Occupational Science — For majors in all disciplines except occupational therapy. See Department of Occupational Therapy.
Outdoor Pursuits — For majors in all disciplines except outdoor adventure leadership, recreation management, and therapeutic recreation. See Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies.
Recreation — For majors in all disciplines except outdoor adventure leadership, recreation management, and therapeutic recreation. See Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies.
Sport and Exercise Psychology — For majors in all disciplines. See Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences .
Nutrition Promotion — Open only to health education and health education and physical education majors; see nutrition promotion minor. See Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education.
Clinical Exercise & Wellness - Open only to exercise science majors
Strength & Conditioning - Open only to exercise science majors
Sport Science - Open only to exercise science majors
Medical Science - Open only to exercise science majors
Applications for the minors and concentrations listed are available in the appropriate departmental office. Students who have majors in the school and are interested in completing any of these programs should work closely with their adviser and department chair to ensure timely graduation. Students considering a minor or concentration must abide by College policies and regulations for these programs. Students may only select ONE minor in the Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education.
In accordance with College regulations that relate specifically to minors, all departments in HSHP have determined that a course that is a requirement in a student’s major and also a requirement in one of the above minors may count for credit to meet the requirements of both the major and the minor.
Departments reserve the right to limit enrollment in minors.
Teacher education students in any major may also apply for coaching certification.
Integrative Core Curriculum
The Integrative Core Curriculum (ICC) is Ithaca College’s liberal education program, which contributes, along with students’ curricular experiences in the major, elective offerings, and out-of-class experiences, to achieving the College’s expectation that Ithaca College graduates should become integrative thinkers, critical and analytical problem solvers, and reflective learners. To achieve these expectations, students completing the ICC will:
- Address a topic, issue, problem area , or human challenge using a combination of concepts, theories, and/or methods from multiple perspectives or fields of study;
- Apply concepts, theories, methods, or skills to analyze new questions or complex problems; and
- Engage in and communicate self-reflection about their learning in the Integrative Core Curriculum, their chosen major discipline, and their overall Ithaca College experience.
Requirements of the ICC
|Themes and Perspective Courses||12|
Creative Arts (CA)
Natural Sciences (NS)
Social Sciences (SO)
|Complimentary Liberal Arts 1||12|
|Academic Writing I (or ICSM 10800 or ICSM 11800)|
Writing Intensive (WI)
Quantitative Literacy (QL) 2
|ICC Capstone (CP)||0-3|
Please check individual majors/programs for their specific CLA requirements.
Must successfully pass math competency exam as a prerequisite.
At the end of each semester, students who have shown outstanding academic achievement are placed on the dean’s list. To be included on the dean’s list in HSHP, a student must meet all of the following criteria:
- earn a minimum grade point average of 3.70,
- complete a minimum of 15 credits, of which at least 12 are graded (not pass/fail or Satisfactory/D/F option), and
- have no final grades of D, F, or I (incomplete).
HSHP Undergraduate Course Grade Appeal Policy
The School of Health Sciences and Human Performance follows the general Ithaca College policy on grade disputes and students’ right to petition, described in the “Academic Information” section of this catalog. See Credit and Grade Information and Academic Affairs Information.
Each student assumes responsibility for presenting all the facts and circumstances concerning a grade appeal. For the procedures for an HSHP undergraduate course grade appeal, see the policy on the “HSHP Community” section of the school’s website. (http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/students/gradeappeal/)
Academic Status Policy
The general academic status policy of the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance follows the College guidelines for warning, suspension, and dismissal, set out in the “Academic Affairs Information” section of this catalog.
To meet minimum College academic standards, a student must maintain at least a 2.00 cumulative GPA and pass at least 24 credits of coursework in any consecutive 12-month period. This policy applies to all students in the school, in addition to other standards specifically established by individual programs, except that the requirement of 24 credits with a passing grade in a consecutive 12-month period does not apply to part-time students. Special academic status policies exist for most majors in HSHP.
A student who fails to meet any of the minimum GPA and credit-hour standards stated above and who is not suspended or dismissed will be placed on academic warning. Any student returning to the College after suspension or dismissal for academic reasons will also have this warning status for the first semester of reinstatement.
A student on warning must earn removal from this status by meeting all of the minimum requirements at the end of the following semester. Where a grade deficiency exists, the student must attain a semester GPA sufficiently above the 2.00 standard to result in a cumulative GPA of at least 2.00 by the end of the following semester.
Suspension and Dismissal
Failure to meet the standards necessary for removal from warning after one semester will render the student subject to suspension or dismissal from both the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance and Ithaca College.
After an official warning, a student may be dismissed from a degree program for failure to make satisfactory progress toward degree completion. Such a student may be admitted to another degree program in the school or College and will have one semester in which to become enrolled in another major or be subject to suspension from the College.
A student will be suspended (rather than dismissed) only when it appears reasonably likely that previous weaknesses will be remedied and minimum requirements will be attained through the student’s successful completion of prescribed remedial measures during suspension. A suspended student is eligible to resume academic work in the school only at the time and under the conditions specified in his or her letter of suspension.
A student who is dismissed by HSHP will not be readmitted to one of the school’s programs under any circumstances.
The College’s policy regarding attendance applies to students’ class absences in the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance. Professors, however, have discretion in interpreting and implementing this policy. Students who wish to participate in extracurricular or cocurricular activities that may necessitate absence from class should discuss the possibility of absences with their instructor at the beginning of the semester. The course syllabus should be consulted for the attendance policy of a particular class. Students should be certain that they fully understand each instructor’s position on absence from classes. For more information see the College’s attendance policy in the “Academic Information” section of this catalog. See Registration and Course Information.
Transfer into the School of Health Sciences and Human Performance
Both internal and external transfer applicants are selectively admitted into HSHP. All students intending to transfer should first contact the department in which their intended major is offered. Those transferring from another Ithaca College department must meet with the appropriate HSHP department chair or designee. Students from other institutions are encouraged to call ahead to arrange for a similar meeting when they visit the College. Satisfactory academic performance is the major requirement for acceptance. On request, a list of courses recommended for potential transfer students is available from the chair of each department or the transfer coordinator for the Department of Physical Therapy.
General Requirements for Internal and External Transfer
The following requirements must be met by students transferring from within Ithaca College. Students transferring from other institutions must satisfy these requirements in addition to the requirements for admission to Ithaca College.
- The professional requirements in most programs in HSHP demand a precise sequencing of courses. For this reason, early transfer into a program is encouraged. A late transfer may require a student to attend summer sessions or defer graduation. Ithaca College students who wish to transfer into any particular department may obtain a change-of-major/school form on the Registrar's website.
- To be admitted to a department in HSHP, it is generally required that the student have a cumulative GPA of at least 2.00 and have completed at least 24 credit hours in the preceding 12 months. However, most degree programs are much more competitive than this.
Specific Departmental Transfer Requirements
Specific departmental transfer requirements for the following programs exceed the general requirements.
Exercise and sport sciences: For the athletic training major, an Ithaca College student must have a cumulative GPA of at least 2.75 or 2.50, respectively. Additionally, the student must have a minimum GPA of 3.00 or 2.75, respectively, in the specific requirements of the major and selected exercise science courses that have been completed by that time, with no grade below C- in any of those courses. Transfer into athletic training is limited to available openings and is highly competitive. Students must transfer initially into the exercise science major. On completion of required sophomore courses, the student is reviewed for admission into the athletic training science major. For sophomore review criteria, see the “Exercise and Sport Sciences” section.
Health promotion and physical education: Admission to the following majors requires a cumulative GPA of at least 2.50: health education, health education and physical education, and physical education. Additionally, these majors require a 2.75 average in required EDUC, PHED and HLTH core courses specified in applicable special academic status policies, with no grade below C in any of these courses.
Occupational therapy: Internal and external transfer applicants are considered for entry after the first semester of the freshman year and as late as the end of the second semester of the sophomore year when space permits. Applicants seeking transfer into the occupational science/occupational therapy (OT) program should have a 3.0 minimum GPA and grades of C or better in all required prerequisite courses, including biology and chemistry. They should have completed a total of 57 credits applicable to the occupational science degree or be in a position to do so by the end of the fourth semester. Early transfer is encouraged. Students transferring at the end of the sophomore year must have completed all coursework and be eligible to register for the required junior-level courses outlined in the program curriculum guidelines. Students interested in transferring into the department are encouraged to contact the department for an advising appointment as early as possible to receive a list of specific prerequisite courses and assistance in academic planning. Students interested in transferring should refer to the transfer application process outlined at http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/depts/ot/trinfo/. Transfer into the occupational therapy program is limited to available openings.
Physical therapy: Internal and external transfer applicants are considered for entry after the first semester of the freshman year and as late as the end of the second semester of the junior year when space permits. Applicants seeking to transfer into the clinical health studies/physical therapy program (D.P.T.) should have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.00 and a 3.00 or better in natural science coursework. Students must be in a position to complete all specified prerequisites by the end of the sixth semester. Prerequisites include 8 credits each in biology for science majors, chemistry for science majors, and physics, 3 credits of anatomy, two .5 credits introductory courses to the profession and practice of physical therapy, and 3 credits in clinical physiology. Applicants must also be in a position to complete all Integrative Core Curriculum (ICC) requirements and a minor before entering the professional phase of the program. Specific information on transfer admission requirements — including requirements relating to nonnative speakers, letters of recommendation, and clinical experience — is available from the Office of Admission or the physical therapy department website. (http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/depts/pt/)
Recreation and leisure studies: Applicants seeking transfer into this department should have at least a 2.00 cumulative GPA and no grade below C- in any course offered by the department. Acceptance to department programs is also based on a composite of other factors, including interest, proficiency, practical experience, and leadership potential in the leisure, recreation, and park profession. Internal and external transfer applicants are considered for entry as late as the end of the second semester of the sophomore year. Earlier transfer is encouraged to facilitate timely graduation. Exceptions to this policy may be granted at the discretion of the chair.
Speech-language pathology and audiology: Students who are currently enrolled at Ithaca College are welcome to transfer into the speech-language pathology major. It is recommended, but not required, that students transfer prior to beginning the sophomore year. Transfer after the second semester of the freshman year may extend the student’s program of study by at least one year. Requirements for transfer into this department include a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.50 and no grade below C- in any speech-language pathology and audiology course completed. In addition, students must meet all college and departmental requirements for satisfactory academic standing.
To be eligible to transfer into the major students must fist meet with the department chair and then submit an Application for Internal Transfers to the Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology which can be obtained in the department office. The college's online transfer request may be submitted after all of the eligibility requirements have been met.
All courses used to fulfill major requirements (SLPA XXXXX) just be taken at Ithaca College.
Transfer Credit for Occasional Study at Another Institution
HSHP students may take courses at another accredited college or university for transfer credit, provided prior written permission for the credit has been obtained. Petition forms for transfer credit are available at the registrar’s office and must be fully completed, submitted, and approved to secure such credit. For regulations on transfer credit, see the "Credit and Grade Information" section of this catalog.
Students who consider taking courses elsewhere should be aware that their last 30 credits must be taken at Ithaca College. This requirement is waived only in very special circumstances. For regulations concerning the petition for waiver of the senior credit requirement, see the “Graduation and Program Regulations” section.
The curricula of most degree programs in the school involve expenses not covered by tuition for the academic year. These may include the cost of summer tuition, liability insurance, books, off-campus housing, transportation, and equipment. Such costs apply to summer internships and clinical education, which may be elected by students in clinical exercise science, exercise science, outdoor adventure leadership, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology and audiology, and therapeutic recreation.
- Athletic training majors must pay for malpractice liability insurance as juniors and seniors, as must some interns in clinical exercise science.
- Clinical exercise science and exercise science students are responsible for transportation, housing, and all other costs associated with their fieldwork and internship placements. Depending on the scope and nature of the placement, some students must also pay for malpractice liability insurance.
- Clinical health studies/physical therapy (D.P.T.) majors must pay tuition and other expenses associated with 7 credits of coursework during the summer prior to the senior (fourth) year. They must pay additional tuition for 4 credits of clinical affiliation during the summer following the senior year and 6 credits of clinical affiliation during the summer at the end of the final year, in addition to other associated costs for each clinical affiliation (room, board, transportation, and liability insurance).
- Heath care management majors must pay tuition, room, board, and other expenses associated with the internship credits if they are taken over the summer following the junior year.
- Health education and physical education students must pay room, board, and other expenses associated with student teaching placements.
- Health sciences and public and community health students must pay room, board, and other expenses associated with fieldwork and internships.
- Occupational science/occupational therapy majors must pay tuition for 5 credits of coursework, room, board, and other expenses during the summer following the junior (third) year. Occupational therapy majors must pay additional tuition for 6 credits of fieldwork during the summer before and 10 credits of fieldwork following coursework in the graduate year, and they are responsible for associated room, board, book, transportation, liability insurance, and other expenses. They are also responsible for the cost of transportation and liability insurance during practicums in their last two undergraduate years and during their graduate study and fieldwork.
- Speech-language pathology and audiology majors are responsible for the cost of malpractice liability insurance and for transportation costs associated with off campus clinical placements.
- Outdoor adventure leadership and therapeutic recreation majors are responsible for the cost of liability insurance when enrolled in fieldwork and internship courses. Outdoor adventure leadership majors are responsible for purchasing their personal outdoor gear. Occasionally, students are charged an additional one-time fee to cover course expenses related to equipment, facility rental, certification fees, or travel.
For more information see “Expenses” in the “Financial Aid” section.